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Ultrasound and acoustic analyses of the English lateral 

Joo Kyeong Lee (University of Seoul)


The current work attempts to investigate Korean learners’ production of English /l/ 
with a closer look at articulatory and acoustic substances. Ultrasound imaging of the 
tongue was used  to  examine  the  coordination of  the  target  gestures  to  compare 
articulatory differences between clear-[l] in onsets and dark-[ɫ] in codas, and between 
native speakers and Korean learners. Acoustically, F2-F1 values at the midpoint of /l/ 
and normalized duration of /l/ were analyzed together. In the experiment, 8 Korean 
learners and 3 native speakers participated in ultrasound and audio recordings. The 
results show that smoothing splines of the tongue mostly overlapped between onsets 
and  codas  in  the  case  of  Korean  learners.  This  suggests  that  Korean  learners’ 
production of onset /l/ was not distinctive from that of coda /l/. The acoustic measures 
of F2-F1 were consistent with the articulatory configurations; F2-F1 values were not 
significantly different between onsets and codas, while native speakers’ F2-F1 values 
of onset /l/ were significantly greater than those of coda /l/. Moreover, Korean learners 
produced a significantly shorter /l/ in both onset and coda position than native speakers. 
Overall, Korean learners were not able to articulate the darkening gestures for codas, 
but they implemented clear-[l] as it occurs in coda position in Korean. The onset 
produced by Korean learners was significantly shorter than that of native speakers. 
Tongue tip raising was appropriately executed, but it seemed to be short of temporal 
sustainability. This suggests that Korean learners produced the tap [ɾ] rather than [l] in 
onset position. 

clear-[l], dark-[ɫ], ultrasound, acoustic, F2-F1, duration, Korean learners 
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공지 [음성음운형태론연구] 온라인 논문 투고 안내 (2023년 1월 14일 수정) Manager 2016.09.02 30500
공지 [음성음운형태론연구] 논문 투고시 유의사항 (2023년 1월 14일 수정) Manager 2013.04.27 39041
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